Heart & Soul Productions

The heart is a muscular organ in both humans and other animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system. Blood provides the body with oxygen and nutrients, and also assists in the removal of metabolic wastes. The heart is located in the middle compartment of the mediastinum in the chest.

In humans, other mammals and birds the heart is divided into four chambers: upper left and right atria; and lower left and right ventricles. Commonly the right atrium and ventricle are referred together as the right heart and their left counterparts as the left heart. Fish in contrast have two chambers, an atrium and a ventricle, while reptiles have three chambers. In a healthy heart blood flows one way through the heart due to heart valves, which prevent backflow. The heart is enclosed in a protective sac, the pericardium, which also contains a small amount of fluid. The wall of the heart is made up of three layers: epicardium; myocardium; and endocardium.

The heart pumps blood through both circulatory systems. Blood low in oxygen from the systemic circulation enters the right atrium from the superior and inferior vena cavae and passes to the right ventricle. From here it is pumped into the pulmonary circulation, through the lungs where it receives oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide. Oxygenated blood then returns to the left atrium, passes through the left ventricle and is pumped out through the aorta to the systemic circulation−where the oxygen is used and metabolized to carbon dioxide. In addition the blood carries nutrients from the liver and gastrointestinal tract to various organs of the body, while transporting waste to the liver and kidneys.[citation needed] Normally with each heartbeat, the right ventricle pumps the same amount of blood into the lungs as the left ventricle pumps out into the body. Veins transport blood to the heart, while arteries transport blood away from the heart. Veins normally have lower pressures than arteries. The heart contracts at a rate of around 72 beats per minute, at rest. Exercise temporarily increases this rate, but lowers resting heart rate in the long term, and is good for heart health.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) were the most common cause of death globally in 2008. CVD accounted for 30% of death cases during this year alone.[10] Of these deaths more than three quarters were due to coronary artery disease and stroke. Risk factors include: smoking, being overweight, not enough exercise, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and poorly controlled diabetes among others.[11] Diagnosis of CVD is often done by listening to the heart-sounds with a stethoscope, ECG or by ultrasound. Diseases of the heart are primarily treated by cardiologists, although many specialties of medicine may be involved.[10]

  1. ^ Taber, Clarence Wilbur; Venes, Donald (2009). Taber's cyclopedic medical dictionary. F a Davis Co. pp. 1018–23. ISBN 0-8036-1559-0. 
  2. ^ a b c d Hall, John (2011). Guyton and Hall textbook of medical physiology (12th ed. ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders/Elsevier. p. 157. ISBN 978-1-4160-4574-8. 
  3. ^ a b c d Keith L. Moore; Arthur F. Dalley; Anne M. R. Agur. "1". Clinically Oriented Anatomy. Wolters Kluwel Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 127–173. ISBN 978-1-60547-652-0. 
  4. ^ Cecie Starr; Christine Evers; Lisa Starr (2 January 2009). Biology: Today and Tomorrow With Physiology. Cengage Learning. pp. 422–. ISBN 978-0-495-56157-6. Retrieved 7 June 2012. 
  5. ^ a b Reed, C. Roebuck; Brainerd, Lee Wherry; Lee,, Rodney; Inc, the staff of Kaplan, (2008). CSET : California Subject Examinations for Teachers (3rd ed. ed.). New York, NY: Kaplan Pub. p. 154. ISBN 9781419552816. 
  6. ^ Phibbs, Brendan (2007). The human heart: a basic guide to heart disease (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 1. ISBN 9780781767774. 
  7. ^ Betts, J. Gordon (2013). Anatomy & physiology. pp. 787–846. ISBN 1938168135. Retrieved 11 August 2014. 
  8. ^ Hall, John (2011). "84". Guyton and Hall textbook of medical physiology (12th ed. ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders/Elsevier. pp. 1039–1041. ISBN 978-1-4160-4574-8. 
  9. ^ a b "Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) Fact sheet N°317 March 2013". WHO. World Health Organization. Retrieved 20 September 2014. 
  10. ^ a b Longo, Dan; Fauci, Anthony; Kasper, Dennis; Hauser, Stephen; Jameson, J.; Loscalzo, Joseph (August 11, 2011). Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine (18 ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 1811. ISBN 9780071748896. 
  11. ^ Graham, I; Atar, D; Borch-Johnsen, K; Boysen, G; Burell, G; Cifkova, R; Dallongeville, J; De Backer, G; Ebrahim, S; Gjelsvik, B; Herrmann-Lingen, C; Hoes, A; Humphries, S; Knapton, M; Perk, J; Priori, SG; Pyorala, K; Reiner, Z; Ruilope, L; Sans-Menendez, S; Scholte op Reimer, W; Weissberg, P; Wood, D; Yarnell, J; Zamorano, JL; Walma, E; Fitzgerald, T; Cooney, MT; Dudina, A; European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Committee for Practice Guidelines, (CPG) (Oct 2007). "European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: executive summary: Fourth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (Constituted by representatives of nine societies and by invited experts).". European heart journal 28 (19): 2375–414. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehm316. PMID 17726041. 

(From Wikipedia. Gender: Company)

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  • Kung Fu Killer (Yi ge ren de wu lin)
    2014, China, Hong Kong, UK release: 20 February 2015

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